- Create a directory hierarchy that matches a given diagram.
- Create files in that hierarchy using an editor or by copying and renaming existing files.
- Display the contents of a directory using the command line.
- Delete specified files and/or directories.
We now know how to explore files and directories, but how do we create them in the first place? Let's go back to Nelle's home directory,
/users/nelle, and use
ls -F to see what it contains:
$ ls -F
creatures/ molecules/ pizza.cfg data/ north-pacific-gyre/ solar.pdf Desktop/ notes.txt writing/
Let's create a new directory called
thesis using the command
mkdir thesis (which has no output):
$ mkdir thesis
As you might (or might not) guess from its name,
mkdir means "make directory". Since
thesis is a relative path (i.e., doesn't have a leading slash), the new directory is created in the current working directory:
$ ls -F
creatures/ north-pacific-gyre/ thesis/ data/ notes.txt writing/ Desktop/ pizza.cfg molecules/ solar.pdf
However, there's nothing in it yet:
$ ls -F thesis
One of the simplest ways to create an empty file is via the
touch command. Change the working directory to
cd, then touch an empty file called
$ cd thesis $ touch draft.txt
If we check the directory contents now,
$ ls -F .
Let's change our working directory to
cd, then run a text editor called Nano to create a file called
$ cd thesis $ nano draft.txt
When we say, "
nano is a text editor," we really do mean "text": it can only work with plain character data, not tables, images, or any other human-friendly media. We use it in examples because almost anyone can drive it anywhere without training, but please use something more powerful for real work. On Unix systems (such as Linux and Mac OS X), many programmers use Emacs or Vim (both of which are completely unintuitive, even by Unix standards), or a graphical editor such as Gedit. On Windows, you may wish to use Notepad++.
No matter what editor you use, you will need to know where it searches for and saves files. If you start it from the shell, it will (probably) use your current working directory as its default location. If you use your computer's start menu, it may want to save files in your desktop or documents directory instead. You can change this by navigating to another directory the first time you "Save As..."
Let's type in a few lines of text, then use Control-O to write our data to disk:
Once our file is saved, we can use Control-X to quit the editor and return to the shell. (Unix documentation often uses the shorthand
^A to mean "control-A".)
nano doesn't leave any output on the screen after it exits, but
ls now shows that we have created a file called
Let's tidy up by running
$ rm draft.txt
This command removes files ("rm" is short for "remove"). If we run
ls again, its output is empty once more, which tells us that our file is gone:
The Unix shell doesn't have a trash bin that we can recover deleted files from (though most graphical interfaces to Unix do). Instead, when we delete files, they are unhooked from the file system so that their storage space on disk can be recycled. Tools for finding and recovering deleted files do exist, but there's no guarantee they'll work in any particular situation, since the computer may recycle the file's disk space right away.
Let's re-create that file and then move up one directory to
$ nano draft.txt $ ls
$ cd ..
If we try to remove the entire
thesis directory using
rm thesis, we get an error message:
$ rm thesis
rm: cannot remove `thesis': Is a directory
This happens because
rm only works on files, not directories. The right command is
rmdir, which is short for "remove directory". It doesn't work yet either, though, because the directory we're trying to remove isn't empty:
$ rmdir thesis
rmdir: failed to remove `thesis': Directory not empty
This little safety feature can save you a lot of grief, particularly if you are a bad typist. To really get rid of
thesis we must first delete the file
$ rm thesis/draft.txt
The directory is now empty, so
rmdir can delete it:
$ rmdir thesis
Removing the files in a directory just so that we can remove the directory quickly becomes tedious. Instead, we can use
rm with the
-r flag (which stands for "recursive"):
$ rm -r thesis
This removes everything in the directory, then the directory itself. If the directory contains sub-directories,
rm -r does the same thing to them, and so on. It's very handy, but can do a lot of damage if used without care.
Let's create that directory and file one more time. (Note that this time we're running
nano with the path
thesis/draft.txt, rather than going into the
thesis directory and running
$ mkdir thesis
$ nano thesis/draft.txt $ ls thesis
draft.txt isn't a particularly informative name, so let's change the file's name using
mv, which is short for "move":
$ mv thesis/draft.txt thesis/quotes.txt
The first parameter tells
mv what we're "moving", while the second is where it's to go. In this case, we're moving
thesis/quotes.txt, which has the same effect as renaming the file. Sure enough,
ls shows us that
thesis now contains one file called
$ ls thesis
Just for the sake of inconsistency,
mv also works on directories --- there is no separate
quotes.txt into the current working directory. We use
mv once again, but this time we'll just use the name of a directory as the second parameter to tell
mv that we want to keep the filename, but put the file somewhere new. (This is why the command is called "move".) In this case, the directory name we use is the special directory name
. that we mentioned earlier.
$ mv thesis/quotes.txt .
The effect is to move the file from the directory it was in to the current working directory.
ls now shows us that
thesis is empty:
$ ls thesis
ls with a filename or directory name as a parameter only lists that file or directory. We can use this to see that
quotes.txt is still in our current directory:
$ ls quotes.txt
cp command works very much like
mv, except it copies a file instead of moving it. We can check that it did the right thing using
ls with two paths as parameters --- like most Unix commands,
ls can be given thousands of paths at once:
$ cp quotes.txt thesis/quotations.txt $ ls quotes.txt thesis/quotations.txt
To prove that we made a copy, let's delete the
quotes.txt file in the current directory and then run that same
$ rm quotes.txt $ ls quotes.txt thesis/quotations.txt
ls: cannot access quotes.txt: No such file or directory thesis/quotations.txt
This time it tells us that it can't find
quotes.txt in the current directory, but it does find the copy in
thesis that we didn't delete.
The shell interprets the character
~ (tilde) at the start of a path to mean "the current user's home directory". For example, if Nelle's home directory is
~/data is equivalent to
/home/nelle/data. This only works if it is the first character in the path:
here/there/~/elsewhere is not
Suppose that you created a
.txt file in your current directory to contain a list of the statistical tests you will need to do to analyze your data, and named it:
After creating and saving this file you realize you misspelled the filename! You want to correct the mistake, which of the following commands could you use to do so?
cp statstics.txt statistics.txt
mv statstics.txt statistics.txt
mv statstics.txt .
cp statstics.txt .
What is the output of the closing
ls command in the sequence shown below?
$ pwd /home/jamie/data $ ls proteins.dat $ mkdir recombine $ mv proteins.dat recombine $ cp recombine/proteins.dat ../proteins-saved.dat $ ls
$ ls -F analyzed/ fructose.dat raw/ sucrose.dat
What command(s) could you run so that the commands below will produce the output shown?
$ ls analyzed/ raw/ $ ls analyzed fructose.dat sucrose.dat
cp do when given several filenames and a directory name, as in:
$ mkdir backup $ cp thesis/citations.txt thesis/quotations.txt backup
cp do when given three or more filenames, as in:
$ ls -F intro.txt methods.txt survey.txt $ cp intro.txt methods.txt survey.txt
ls -R lists the contents of directories recursively, i.e., lists their sub-directories, sub-sub-directories, and so on in alphabetical order at each level. The command
ls -t lists things by time of last change, with most recently changed files or directories first. In what order does
ls -R -t display things?
mv fructose.dat sucrose.dat analyzed/
cpwhen given several filenames and a directory name will copy the files specified by the first two (or more) arguments into the directory specified by the last argument. b)
cpwhen given three or more filenames will give an error. The last argument must be the target directory.
ls -R -twill list items recursuvely and at each level items are listed by time since last change.